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Summary of React Tutorial

ยท 11 min read
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๐Ÿค–WARNING
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Summary of learning React and its related ecosystem

Do you want to learn? If not, I'll let it go

Basic Knowledgeโ€‹

  • One-way data flow in React (child components cannot modify parent component data)

  • Component names must start with capital letters

  • You can use <React.Fragment></React.Fragment> or <></> to wrap tags

  • Keywords

    • class -> className
    • <label for="id"></lable> -> <label htmlFor="id"></lable> used to enlarge the click range
  • Do not directly modify state, but use this.setState()

  • this binding problem

    // Use bind in constructor, cannot pass parameters
    this.handlerClick = this.handlerClick.bind(this);
    // Use bind when calling, unfriendly to performance, because it needs to be rebound every time render() is called
    onChange={this.handlerClick.bind(this,num)}
    // Use arrow function
    onChange={e => this.handlerClick(num)}
    // Declare as an arrow function, cannot pass parameters
    handlerClick = num => {};
  • Add key when rendering in a loop, do not use index as key value.

  • Comment syntax {/**/}

  • dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{__html: item(data to be displayed)}} // Disable HTML escaping
  • The second argument of setState() is a callback function

  • When state or props changes, render() is executed in React. In other words, when the state of the parent component changes, render() will execute and the child components in the parent component will also be rendered.

  • Animation component react-transition-group

  • When a component only has render(), it can be declared as a stateless component to improve performance

  • key is used to obtain DOM elements. In Vue, ref is also used to obtain DOM elements.

Component Communicationโ€‹

Parent -> Childโ€‹

Passed through properties, child components receive them through this.props. Changes in the parent component will directly affect the child component.

Parent component

// Using child component inside parent component
const name = 'Alan'

<Child name={name} />

Child component

<div>{this.props.name}</div>

Child -> Parentโ€‹

The parent component passes its own method to the child component, and the child component calls the method by adding an event. This allows the child component to modify the parent component's data and pass its own data to the parent component.

Parent component

this.state = {
list: [1,2,3]
}

<Child handlerEvent={this.deleteItem.bind(this)} />

// Method
deleteItem(index) {
const list = [...this.state.list];
list.splice(index,1);
this.setState({
list,
});
}

Child component

<button onClick={() => this.props.handlerEvent(1)}></button>

Props Validation and Default Valuesโ€‹

Specific parameters

import PropTypes from 'prop-types';

// Parameter validation
// Child is the name of the component
// Defines this.props.content as a required parameter of type string
Child.propTypes = {
content: PropTypes.string.isRequired
};

// Default parameter values
Child.defaultProps = {
mobile: 'none'
};

Asynchronous Component Loading Plugin react-loadableโ€‹

Usage

import React, { Component } from 'react';
import Loadable from 'react-loadable';

const LoadableComponent = Loadable({
// Component to be asynchronously imported
loader: () => import('./index'),
loading() {
// Action to be taken while loading, here displaying loading to improve user experience
return <div>loading...</div>;
}
});

export default class App extends Component {
render() {
return <LoadableComponent />;
}
}

Virtual DOMโ€‹

What is Virtual DOMโ€‹

Use JavaScript objects to describe the real DOM. Operations on the virtual DOM (JavaScript objects) are much more efficient than operations on the real DOM.

Use React.createElement(type, [props], [...children]) to generate a virtual DOM.

Advantages:

  • DOM operations are time-consuming, while virtual DOM operations are efficient

  • No need to replace the entire DOM, but replace the modified part of the DOM by comparing changes through the diff algorithm

  • Due to the use of virtual DOM, it is beneficial for the development of native applications (RN) because the DOM exists in the browser.

For performance reasons, React combines multiple setState() calls into one call (asynchronous function) because setState() will trigger the virtual DOM to perform diff comparison.

Diff Algorithmโ€‹

Diff algorithm

Lifecycleโ€‹

  • Mounting
    • componentWillMount / UNSAFE_componentWillMount
    • render()
    • componentDidMount Use cases: sending requests
  • Updating (when props/state changes)
  • Unmounting
    • componentWillUnmount

Performance Optimizationโ€‹

// Only execute render() when child component data changes
shouldComponentUpdate(nextProps, nextState) {
return nextProps.content !== this.props.content;
// Prevent updating from affecting performance
}

You can also use the component to inherit from React.PureComponent to achieve the same effect as above, but it should be used sparingly because it has some issues. Issues

Similar APIs are available in hooks: useMemo and useCallback

Reference for useMemo:

How to useMemo in React

Reduxโ€‹

Redux Principle

Principleโ€‹

Components notify the store through dispatch(action). The store calls the corresponding reducers based on action to manipulate the copy of the store. The reducers return the manipulated data to the store.

The components and the store synchronize the latest store data through store.subscribe(this.setState(store.getState())).

  1. Create store (createStore())
import { createStore } from 'redux';
import reducer from './reducer';
// The second parameter can be configured to use the Google Redux plugin
const store = createStore(
reducer,
window.__REDUX_DEVTOOLS_EXTENSION__ && window.__REDUX_DEVTOOLS_EXTENSION__()
);
export default store;
  1. Create reducer (manage operation of store data)
const defaultState = {
todoText: ''
};

export default (state = defaultState, action) => {
if (action.type === 'action type') {
let newState = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(state));
// Update store
newState.todoText = action.value;
return newState;
}
return state;
};

You can use store.getState() to get the data in the store, and assign initial values to the component

this.state = store.getState();
  1. Create action
const action = {
type: '',
value: '' // The value to be changed
};
  1. Notify the store through store.dispatch(action). The reducer accepts the previous state and action.

  2. The reducer updates the copy of the state and returns the new state to the store.

  3. In components that use the store, synchronize the latest store data by subscribing to the store through store.subscribe(this.setState(store.getState())).

To improve code robustness and maintainability, declare action as a separate file and declare action.type as a constant file.

store
โ”œโ”€โ”€ actionCreators.js // Generate actions
โ”œโ”€โ”€ actionType.js // Constants corresponding to action types
โ”œโ”€โ”€ index.js
โ””โ”€โ”€ reducer.js
import { createStore } from 'redux';
import reducer from './reducer';

const store = createStore(
reducer,
window.__REDUX_DEVTOOLS_EXTENSION__ && window.__REDUX_DEVTOOLS_EXTENSION__()
);
export default store;
info

The return value of the reducers function needs to be predictable, which means that code with unpredictable results, such as new Date or Ajax, cannot be written inside it.

Reducers cannot modify the original state and can only return a new state. To prevent bugs caused by being accidentally modified, you can use immutable.js to solve it, which can convert state data into a particular object.

npm i immutable redux-immutable -S
  • Use get() and set() API of immutable objects to manipulate data. When multiple set() are used in a row, merge({}) can be used to achieve the same purpose.
  • immutable can convert state into an immutable object using fromJS, and convert immutable objects into js objects using toJS().
  • redux-immutable also provides combineReducers, which combines reducers of different modules while converting the state into an immutable object.
info

When the project becomes larger and the reducer.js file becomes bloated, you can use the combineReducers provided by redux to split the reducer into different modules.

import { combineReducers } from 'redux';
import mAReducer from '../mAReducer/store/reducer';
import mBReducer from '../mBReducer/store/reducer';

export default combineReducers({
A: mAReducer,
B: mBReducer
});
// When using the data in mAReducer, you need to use state.A.xxx to access the data

redux-thunkโ€‹

Middleware: between action and store

redux-thunk allows redux to use asynchronous operations

Usage

import { createStore, applyMiddleware, compose } from 'redux';
import reducer from './reducer';
import thunk from 'redux-thunk';

const composeEnhancers = window.__REDUX_DEVTOOLS_EXTENSION_COMPOSE__
? window.__REDUX_DEVTOOLS_EXTENSION_COMPOSE__({})
: compose;

const enhancer = composeEnhancers(applyMiddleware(thunk));

const store = createStore(reducer, enhancer);

export default store;

Example

export const setTodoList = list => ({
type: GET_TODOLIST,
list
});

export const getTodoList = () => {
return dispatch => {
axios.get('http://localhost:8888/test/getTodoList').then(res => {
const todoList = res.data.datas;
const action = setTodoList(todoList);
dispatch(action);
});
};
};

redux-sagaโ€‹

Usage

import { createStore, applyMiddleware, compose } from 'redux';
import reducer from './reducer';
import createSagaMiddleware from 'redux-saga';
import mySaga from './sagas';

const sagaMiddleware = createSagaMiddleware();

const composeEnhancers = window.__REDUX_DEVTOOLS_EXTENSION_COMPOSE__
? window.__REDUX_DEVTOOLS_EXTENSION_COMPOSE__({})
: compose;

const enhancer = composeEnhancers(applyMiddleware(sagaMiddleware));
const store = createStore(reducer, enhancer);
sagaMiddleware.run(mySaga);

export default store;

react-reduxโ€‹

Use Provider and connect to achieve store sharing. Previously, you needed to import the store in the component that needed to use it, and use store.subscribe and store.getState to synchronize and get the latest store content.

<Provider store={store}>
{/* Wrap the component that needs to use the store */}
<App />
</Provider>
Demo.js
import { deleteTodoItemAction } from '../../store/actionCreators';

// Map the data in the store state to the props of the component
const mapStateToProps = state => ({
...state
});

// Map dispatch to props
const mapDispatchToProps = dispatch => {
return {
deleteTodoItem(index) {
const action = deleteTodoItemAction(index);
dispatch(action);
}
};
};

// Wrap the component that needs to use the store (Demo component)
connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps)(Demo);

Hookโ€‹

If you are using hook for development, you can use the hook API provided by react-redux to simplify the writing process without using connect() to wrap the component. However, you still need to use Provider to wrap the parent component

import { useSelector, useDispatch } from 'react-redux';
import { deleteTodoItemAction } from '../../store/actionCreators';

// Equivalent to the previous mapStateToProps
const counter = useSelector(state => state.counter);

const dispatch = useDispatch();

// Usage
dispatch(deleteTodoItemAction);
  • useSelector: Returns the value in state. When an action is dispatched, useSelector compares the result returned by the previous selector with the current result through a shallow comparison (the default is deep comparison ===). If they are different, the component will be rendered forcefully, otherwise it will not.

CSS Writing Styleโ€‹

Unlike Vue, React does not provide a way to write CSS code elegantly in Vue files. However, React does provide several ways to write CSS code (to be supplemented).

  • CSS-in-JS
  • Use styled-components
  • CSS Modules (dependent on webpack)

styled-components (write CSS code in JS)

import styled from 'styled-components';

export const Logo = styled.a.attrs({
href: '/'
})`
position: absolute;
top: 0;
left: 0;
background: url(${props => props.imgUrl});
`;

The above writing is equivalent to

render() {
return (
<a href="/" style={{position: "absolute", top: 0, left: 0}}></a>
);
}

react-routerโ€‹

npm i react-router-dom -S
Usage
import React from 'react';
import Header from './common/header';
import store from './store';
import { BrowserRouter as Router, Route } from 'react-router-dom';
import { Provider } from 'react-redux';
import Home from './pages/home';
import Detail from './pages/detail';

function App() {
return (
<Provider store={store}>
<Router>
<Header />
<Route path="/" exact component={Home}></Route>
<Route path="/detail" exact component={Detail}></Route>
</Router>
</Provider>
);
}

export default App;

exact is used for precise matching of routes

Page navigation is done through <Link to="xxx"></Link> in the react-router-dom, and redirection is done through <Redirect to="xxx"></Redirect>

Programmatic writing:

this.props.history.(push()/goBack(num)/go()/replace())

Dynamic Routing
<Route path="/post/:id" exact component={POST}></Route>
// In the POST component, you can get the id value using this.props.match.params.id

You can use withRouter to wrap the component to get history

React vs Vueโ€‹

Compared to Vue, React has a higher learning curve but is more flexible. Vue provides many encapsulated APIs, making it easier for beginners to learn.

This article is licensed under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.